NAT-T (NAT Transversal) allows for IP-ESP packets to transverse devices which introduce NAT.
The problem with IPSec is that it uses the IP-ESP protocol naively. The ESP protocol doesn’t have “port-numbers” like TCP and UDP so NAT does not know how to translate the traffic because NAT/PAT is based on port numbers.
With NAT-T the ESP packets are encapsulated within UDP packets (normally UDP/4500). Now that the packets are UDP based the NAT device can correctly NAT the traffic due to being to change the port numbers due to having the required packet headers.
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